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Chapter 9:


The great system of deposits to which Sir Roderick Murchison applied the name of "Silurian Rocks" reposes directly upon the highest Cambrian beds, apparently without any marked unconformity, though with a considerable change in the nature of the fossils. The name "Silurian" was originally proposed by the eminent geologist just alluded to for a great series of strata lying below the Old Red Sandstone, and occupying districts in Wales and its borders which were at one time inhabited by the "Silures," a tribe of ancient Britons. Deposits of a corresponding age are now known to be largely developed in other parts of England, in Scotland, and in Ireland, in North America, in Australia, in India, in Bohemia, Saxony, Bavaria, Russia, Sweden and Norway, Spain, and in various other regions of less note. In some regions, as in the neighbourhood of St Petersburg, the Silurian strata are found not only to have preserved their original horizontality, but also to have retained almost unaltered their primitive soft and incoherent nature. In other regions, as in Scandinavia and many Page 91 parts of North America, similar strata, now consolidated into shales, sandstones, and limestones, may be found resting with a very slight inclination on still older sediments. In a great many regions, however, the Silurian deposits are found to have undergone more or less folding, crumpling, and dislocation, accompanied by induration and "cleavage" of the finer and softer sediments; whilst in some regions, as in the Highlands of Scotland, actual "metamorphism" has taken place. In consequence of the above, Silurian districts usually present the bold, rugged, and picturesque outlines which are characteristic of the older "Primitive" rocks of the earth's crust in general. In many instances, we find Silurian strata rising into mountain-chains of great grandeur and sublimity, exhibiting the utmost diversity of which rock-scenery is capable, and delighting the artist with endless changes of valley, lake, and cliff. Such districts are little suitable for agriculture, though this is often compensated for by the valuable mineral products contained in the rocks. On the other hand, when the rocks are tolerably soft and uniform in their nature, or when few disturbances of the crust of the earth have taken place, we may find Silurian areas to be covered with an abundant pasturage or to be heavily timbered.

Under the head of "Silurian Rocks," Sir Roderick Murchison included all the strata between the summit of the "Longmynd." beds and the Old Red Sandstone, and he divided these into the two great groups of the Lower Silurian and Upper Silurian. It is, however, now generally admitted that a considerable portion of the basement beds of Murchison's Silurian series must be transferred—if only upon palæontological grounds—to the Upper Cambrian, as has here been done; and much controversy has been carried on as to the proper nomenclature of the Upper Silurian and of the remaining portion of Murchison's Lower Silurian. Thus, some would confine the name "Silurian" exclusively to the Upper Silurian, and would apply the name of "Cambro-Silurian" to the Lower Silurian, or would include all beds of the latter age in the "Cambrian" series of Sedgwick. It is not necessary to enter into the merits of these conflicting views. For our present purpose, it is sufficient to recognise that there exist two great groups of rocks between the highest Cambrian beds, as here defined, and the base of the Devonian or Old Red Sandstone. These two great groups are so closely allied to one another, both physically and palæontologically, that many authorities have established a third or intermediate group (the "Middle Silurian"), by which a Page 92 passage is made from one into the other. This method of procedure involves disadvantages which appear to outweigh its advantages; and the two groups in question are not only generally capable of very distinct stratigraphical separation, but at the same time exhibit, together with the alliances above spoken of, so many and such important palæontological differences, that it is best to consider them separately. We shall therefore follow this course in the present instance; and pending the final solution of the controversy as to Cambrian and Silurian nomenclature, we shall distinguish these two groups of strata as the "Lower Silurian" and the "Upper Silurian."

The Lower Silurian Rocks are known already to be developed in various regions; and though their general succession in these areas is approximately the same, each area exhibits peculiarities of its own, whilst the subdivisions of each are known by special names. All, therefore, that can be attempted here, is to select two typical areas—such as Wales and North America and to briefly consider the grouping and divisions of the Lower Silurian in each.

In Wales, the line between the Cambrian and Lower Silurian is somewhat ill-defined, and is certainly not marked by any strong unconformity. There are, however; grounds for accepting the line proposed, for palæontological reasons, by Dr Hicks, in accordance with which the Tremadoc Slates ("Lower Tremadoc" of Salter) become the highest of the Cambrian deposits of Britain. If we take this view, the Lower Silurian rocks of Wales and adjoining districts are found to have the following general succession from below upwards (fig. 34):—

1. The Arenig Group.—This group derives its name from the Arenig mountains, where it is extensively developed. It consists of about 4000 feet of slates, shales, and flags, and is divisible into a lower, middle, and upper division, of which the former is often regarded as Cambrian under the name of "Upper Tremadoc Slates."

2. The Llandeilo Group.—The thickness of this group varies from about 4000 to as much as 10,000 feet; but in this latter case a great amount of the thickness is made up of volcanic ashes and interbedded traps. The sedimentary beds of this group are principally slates and flags, the latter occasionally with calcareous bands; and the whole series can be divided into a lower, middle, and upper Llandeilo division, of which the last is the most important. The name of "Llandeilo" is derived from the town of the same name in Wales, where strata of this age were described by Murchison.

Page 93 3. The Caradoc or Bala Group.—The alternative names of this group are also of local origin, and are derived, the one from Caer Caradoc in Shropshire, the other from Bala in Wales, strata of this age occurring in both localities. The series is divided into a lower and upper group, the latter chiefly composed of shales and flags, and the former of sandstones and shales, together with the important and interesting calcareous band known as the "Bala Limestone." The thickness of the entire series varies from 4000 to as much as 12,000 feet, according as it contains more or less of interstratified igneous rocks.

4. The Llandovery Group (Lower Llandovery of Murchison).—This series, as developed near the town of Llandovery, in Caermarthenshire, consists of less than 1000 feet of conglomerates, sandstones, and shales. It is probable, however, that the little calcareous band known as the "Hirnant Limestone," together with certain pale-coloured slates which lie above the Bala Limestone, though usually referred to the Caradoc series, should in reality be regarded as belonging to the Llandovery group.

The general succession of the Lower Silurian strata of Wales and its borders, attaining a maximum thickness (along with contemporaneous igneous matter) of nearly 30,000 feet, is diagramatically represented in the annexed sketch-section (fig. 34):—

Fig. 34.
Fig. 34

In North America, both in the United States and in Canada, the Silurian rocks are very largely developed, and may be regarded as constituting an exceedingly full and typical series of the deposits of this period. The chief groups of the Silurian rocks of North America are as follows, beginning, as before, with the lowest strata, and proceeding upwards (fig. 35):—

1. Quebec Group.—This group is typically developed in the vicinity of Quebec, where it consists of about 5000 feet of strata, chiefly variously-coloured shales, together with some sandstones and a few calcareous bands. It contains a number of peculiar Graptolites, by which it can be identified without question with the Arenig group of Wales and the corresponding Skiddaw Slates of the North of England. It is also to be noted that numerous Trilobites of a distinct Cambrian facies have been obtained in the limestones of the Quebec group, near Quebec. These fossils, however, have been exclusively obtained from the limestones of the group; and as these limestones are principally calcareous breccias or conglomerates, there is room for believing that these primordial fossils are really derived, in part at any rate, from fragments of an upper Cambrian limestone. In the State of New York, the Graptolitic shales of Quebec are wanting; and the base of the Silurian is constituted by the so-called "Calciferous Sand-rock" and "Chazy Limestone."[11] The first of these is essentially and typically calcareous, and the second is a genuine limestone.

[Footnote 11: The precise relations of the Quebec shales with Graptolites (Levis Formation) to the Calciferous and Chazy beds are still obscure, though there seems little doubt but that the Quebec Shales are superior to the Calciferous Sand-rock.]

2. The Trenton Group.—This is an essentially calcareous group, the various limestones of which it is composed being known as the "Bird's-eye," "Black River," and "Trenton" Limestones, of which the last is the thickest and most important. The thickness of this group is variable, and the bands of limestone in it are often separated by beds of shale.

3. The Cincinnati Group (Hudson River Formation[12]).—This group consists essentially of a lower series of shales, often black in colour and highly charged with bituminous matter (the "Utica Slates "), and of an upper series of shales, sandstones, Page 96 and limestones (the "Cincinnati" rocks proper). The exact parallelism of the Trenton and Cincinnati groups with the subdivisions of the Welsh Silurian series can hardly be stated positively. Probably no precise equivalency exists; but there can be no doubt but that the Trenton and Cincinnati groups correspond, as a whole, with the Llandeilo and Caradoc groups of Britain. The subjoined diagrammatic section (fig. 35) gives a general idea of the succession of the Lower Silurian rocks of North America:— GENERALIZED SECTION OF THE LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 35.
Fig. 35

[Footnote 12: There is some difficulty about the precise nomenclature of this group. It was originally called the "Hudson River Formation;" but this name is inappropriate, as rocks of this age hardly touch anywhere the actual Hudson River itself, the rocks so called formerly being now known to be of more ancient date. There is also some want of propriety in the name of "Cincinnati Group," since the rocks which are known under this name in the vicinity of Cincinnati itself are the representatives of the Trenton Limestone, Utica Slates, and the old Hudson River group, inseparably united in what used to be called the "Blue Limestone Series."].

Page 97 Of the life of the Lower Silurian period we have record in a vast number of fossils, showing that the seas of this period were abundantly furnished with living denizens. We have, however, in the meanwhile, no knowledge of the land-surfaces of the period. We have therefore no means of speculating as to the nature of the terrestrial animals of this ancient age, nor is anything known with certainty of any land-plants which may have existed. The only relics of vegetation upon which a positive opinion can be expressed belong to the obscure group of the "Fucoids," and are supposed to be the remains of sea-weeds. Some of the fossils usually placed under this head are probably not of a vegetable Fig. 36
Fig. 36.—Licrophycus Ottawaensis a "Fucoid," from the Trenton Limestone (Lower Silurian) of Canada. (After Billings.)
nature at all, but others (fig. 36) appear to be unquestionable plants. The true affinities of these, however, are extremely dubious. All that can be said is, that remains which appear to be certainly vegetable, Page 98 and which are most probably due to marine plants, have been recognised nearly at the base of the Lower Silurian (Arenig), and that they are found throughout the series whenever suitable conditions recur.

The Protozoans appear to have flourished extensively in the Lower Silurian seas, though to a large extent under forms which are still little understood. We have here for the first time the appearance of Foraminifera of the ordinary type—one of the most interesting observations in this collection being that made by Ehrenberg, who showed that the Lower Silurian sandstones of the neighbourhood of St Petersburg contained casts in glauconite of Foraminiferous shells, some of which are referable to the existing genera Rotalia and Texularia. True Sponges, belonging to that section of the group in which the skeleton is calcareous, are also not unknown, one of the Fig. 37
Fig. 37.—Astylospongia prœmorsa, cut vertically so as to exhibit the canal-system in the interior. Lower Silurian, Tennessee. (After Ferdinand Rœmer.)
most characteristic genera being Astylospongia (fig. 37). In this genus are included more or less globular, often lobed sponges, which are believed not to have been attached to foreign bodies. In the form here figured there is a funnel-shaped cavity at the summit; and the entire mass of the sponge is perforated, as in living examples, by a system of canals which convey the sea-water to all parts of the organism. The canals by which the sea-water gains entrance open on the exterior of the sphere, and those by which it again escapes from the sponge open into the cup-shaped depression at the summit.

The most abundant, and at the same time the least understood, of Lower Silurian Protozoans belong, however, to the genera Stromatopora and Receptaculites, the structure of which can merely be alluded to here. The specimens of Stromatopora (fig. 38) occur as hemispherical, pear-shaped, globular, or irregular masses, often of very considerable size, and sometimes demonstrably attached to foreign bodies. In their structure these masses consist of numerous thin calcareous laminæ, usually arranged concentrically, and separated by narrow interspaces. These interspaces are generally crossed by numerous vertical calcareous pillars, giving the Page 99 vertical section of the fossil a lattice-like appearance. There are also usually minute pores in the concentric laminæ, by which the successive interspaces are Fig. 38
Fig. 38.—A small and perfect specimen of Stromatopora rugosa, of the natural size, from the Trenton Limestone of Canada. (After Billings.)
placed in communication; and sometimes the surface presents large rounded openings, which appear to correspond with the water-canals of the Sponges. Upon the whole, though presenting some curious affinities to the calcareous Sponges, Stromatopora is perhaps more properly regarded as a gigantic Foraminifer. If this view be correct, it is of special interest as being probably the nearest ally of Eozoön, the general appearance of the two being strikingly similar, though their minute structure is not at all the same. Lastly, in the fossils known as Receptaculites and Ischadites we are also presented with certain singular Lower Silurian Protozoans, which may with great probability be regarded as gigantic Foraminifera. Their structure is very complex; but fragments are easily recognised by the fact that the exterior is covered with numerous rhomboidal calcareous plates, closely fitting together, and arranged in peculiar intersecting curves, presenting very much the appearance of the engine-turned case of a watch.

Passing next to the sub-kingdom of Cœlenterate animals (Zoophytes, Corals, &c.), we find that this great group, almost or wholly absent in the Cambrian, is represented in Lower Page 100 Silurian deposits by a great number of forms belonging on the one hand to the true Corals, and en the other hand to the singular family of the Graptolites. If we except certain plant-like fossils which probably belong rather to the Sertularians or the Polyzoans (e.g., Dictyonema, Dendrograptus, &c.), the family of the Graptolites may be regarded as exclusively Silurian in its distribution. Not only is this the case, but it attained its maximum development almost upon its first appearance, in the Arenig Rocks; and whilst represented by a great variety of types in the Lower Silurian; it only exists in the Upper Silurian in a much diminished form. The Graptolites (Gr. grapho, I write; lithos, stone) were so named by Linnæus, from the resemblance of some of them to written or pencilled marks upon the stone, though the great naturalist himself did not believe them to be true fossils at all. They occur as linear or leaf-like bodies, sometimes simple, sometimes compound and branched; and no doubt whatever can be entertained as to their being the skeletons of composite organisms, or colonies of semi-independent animals united together by a common fleshy trunk, similar to what is observed in the colonies of the existing Sea-firs (Sertularians). This fleshy trunk or common stem of the colony was protected by a delicate horny sheath, and it gave origin to the little flower-like "polypites," which constituted the active element of the whole assemblage. These semi-independent beings were, in turn, protected each by a little horny cup or cell, directly connected with the common sheath below, and terminating above in an opening through which the polypite could protrude its tentacled head or could again withdraw itself for safety. The entire skeleton, again, was usually, if not universally, supported by a delicate horny rod or "axis," which appears to have been hollow, and which often protrudes to a greater or less extent beyond one or both of the extremities of the actual colony.

The above gives the elementary constitution of any Graptolite, but there are considerable differences as to the manner in which these elements are arranged and combined. In some forms the common stem of the colony gives origin to but a single row of cells on one side. If the common stem is a simple, straight, or slightly-curved linear body, then we have the simplest form of Graptolite known (the genus Monograptus); and it is worthy of note that these simple types do not come into existence till comparatively late (Llandeilo), and last nearly to the very close of the Upper Silurian. In other cases, whilst there is still but a single row of cells, the colony may consist of two of these simple stems springing from a Page 101 common point, as in the so-called "twin Graptolites" (Didymograptus, fig. 40). This type is entirely confined to the earlier portion of the Lower Silurian period (Arenig and Llandeilo). In other cases, again, there may be four of such stems springing from a central point (Tetragraptus). Lastly, there are numerous complex forms (such as Dichograptus, Loganograptus, &c.) in which there are eight or more of these simple branches, all arising from a common centre (fig. 39), which is sometimes furnished with a singular horny disc. These complicated branching forms, as well as the Tetragrapti, are characteristic of the horizon of the Arenig group. Similar forms, often specifically identical, are found at this horizon in Wales, in the great series of the Skiddaw Slates of the north of England, in the Quebec group in Canada, in equivalent beds in Sweden, and in certain gold-bearing slates of the same age in Victoria in Australia.

Fig. 39
Fig. 39.—Dichograptus octobrachiatus, a branched, "unicellular" Graptolite from the Skiddaw and Quebec Groups (Arenig). (After Hall.)

In another great group of Graptolites (including the genera Diplograptus, Dicranograptus, Climacograptus, &c.) the common stem of the colony gives origin, over part or the whole or its length, to two rows of cells, one on each side (fig. 41). These "double-celled" Graptolites are highly characteristic of the Lower Silurian deposits; and, with an exception more apparent than Page 102 real in Bohemia, they are exclusively confined to strata of Lower Silurian age, and are not known to occur in the Upper Silurian. Fig. 40
Fig. 40.—Central portion of the colony of Didymegraptus divaricatus, Upper Llandeilo, Dumfresshire. (Original.)
Lastly, there is a group of Graptolites (Phyllograptus, fig. 42) in which the colony is leaf-like in form, and is composed Fig. 41
Fig. 41.—Examples of Diplograptus pristis, showing variations in the appendages at the base. Upper Llandeilo, Dumfriesshire. (Original.)
Fig. 42
Fig. 42.—Group of individuals of Phyllograptus typus, from the Quebec group of Canada. (After Hall.) One of the four rows of cells is hidden on the under surface.
of four rows of cells springing in a cross-like Page 103 manner from the common stem. These forms are highly characteristic of the Arenig group.

The Graptolites are usually found in dark-coloured, often black shales, which sometimes contain so much carbon as to become "anthracitic." They may be simply carbonaceous; but they are more commonly converted into iron-pyrites, when they glitter with the brilliant lustre of silver as they lie scattered on the surface of the rock, fully deserving in their metallic tracery the name of "written stones." They constitute one of the most important groups of Silurian fossils, and are of the greatest value in determining the precise stratigraphical position of the beds in which they occur. They present, however, special difficulties in their study; and it is still a moot point as to their precise position in the zoological scale. The balance of evidence is in favour of regarding them as an ancient and peculiar group of the Sea-firs (Hydroid Zoophytes), but some regard them as belonging rather to the Sea-mosses (Polyzoa). Under any circumstances, they cannot be directly compared either with the ordinary Sea-firs or the ordinary Sea-mosses; for these two groups consist of fixed organisms, whereas the Graptolites were certainly free-floating creatures, living at large in the open sea. The only Hydroid Zoophytes or Polyzoans which have a similar free mode of existence, have either no skeleton at all, or have hard structures quite unlike the horny sheaths of the Graptolites.

The second great group of Cœlenterate animals (Actinozoa) is represented in the Lower Silurian rocks by numerous Corals. These, for obvious reasons, are much more abundant in regions where the Lower Silurian series is largely calcareous (as in North America) than in districts like Wales, where limestones are very feebly developed. The Lower Silurian Corals, though the first of their class, and presenting certain peculiarities, may be regarded as essentially similar in nature to existing Corals. These, as is well known, are the calcareous skeletons of animals—the so-called "Coral-Zoophytes"—closely allied to the common Sea-anemones in structure and habit. A simple coral (fig. 43) consists of a calcareous cup embedded in the soft tissues of the flower-like polype, and having at its summit a more or less deep depression (the "calice") in which the digestive organs are contained. The space within the coral is divided into compartments by numerous vertical calcareous plates (the "septa"), which spring from the inside of the wall of the cup, and of which some generally reach the centre. Compound corals, again (fig. 44), consist of a greater or less number of structures similar in structure to the above, Page 104 but united together in different ways into a common mass. Simple corals, therefore, are the Fig. 43
Fig. 43.—Zaphrentis Stokesi, a simple "cup-coral," Upper Silurian, Canada. (After Billings.)
Fig. 44
Fig. 44.—Upper surface of a mass of Strombodes pentagonus. Upper Silurian, Canada. (After Billings.)
skeletons of single and independent polypes; whilst compound corals are the skeletons of assemblages or colonies of similar polypes, living united with one another another as an organic community.

In the general details of their structure, the Lower Silurian Corals do not differ from the ordinary Corals of the present day. The latter, however, have the vertical calcareous plates of the coral ("septa") arranged in multiples of six or five; whereas the former have these structures arranged in multiples of four, and often showing a cross-like disposition. For this reason, the common Lower Silurian Corals are separated to form a distinct group under the name of Rugose Corals or Rugosa. They are further distinguished by the fact that the cavity of the coral ("visceral chamber") is usually subdivided by more or less numerous horizontal calcareous plates or partitions, which divide the coral into so many tiers or storeys, and which are known as the "tabulæ" (fig. 45).

In addition to the Rugose Corals, the Lower Silurian rocks contain a number of curious compound corals, the tubes of which have either no septa at all or merely rudimentary ones, but which have the transverse partitions or "tabulæ" very highly developed. These are known as the Tabulate Corals; and recent researches on some of their existing allies (such as Heliopora) have shown that they are really allied to Page 105 the modern Sea-pens, Organ-pipe Corals, and Red Coral, rather than to the typical stony Corals. Amongst the characteristic Rugose Corals of the Lower Silurian Fig. 45
Fig. 45.—Columnaria alveolata, a Rugose compound coral, with imperfect septa, but having the corallites partitioned off into storeys by "tabulæ." Lower Silurian, Canada. (After Billings.)
may be mentioned species belonging to the genera Columnaria, Favistella, Streptelasma, and Zaphrentis; whilst amongst the "Tabulate" Corals, the principal forms belong to the genera Chœtetes, Halysites (the Chain-coral), Constellaria, and Heliolites. These groups of the Corals, however, attain a greater development at a later period, and they will be noticed more particularly hereafter.

[Footnote 13: The genus Caryocrinus is sometimes regarded as properly belonging to the Crinoids, but there seem to be good reasons for rather considering it as an abnormal form of Cystidean.]

Passing onto higher animals, we find that the class of the Echinodermata is represented by examples of the Star-fishes (Asteroidea), the Sea-lilies (Crinoidea), and the peculiar extinct group of the Cystideans (Cystoidea), with one or two of the Brittle-stars (Ophiuroidea)—the Sea-urchins (Echinoidea) being still wanting. The Crinoids, though in some places extremely numerous, have not the varied development that they possess in the Upper Silurian, in connection with which their structure will be more fully spoken of. In the meanwhile, it is sufficient to note that many of the calcareous deposits of the Lower Silurian are strictly entitled to the name of "Crinoidal limestones," being composed in great part of the detached joints, and plates, and broken stems, of these beautiful but fragile organisms (see fig. 12). Allied to the Crinoids are the singular creatures which are known as Cystideans (fig. 46). These are generally composed of a globular or ovate body (the "calyx"), supported upon a short stalk (the "column"), by which the organism was usually attached to some foreign body. The body was enclosed by closely-fitting calcareous plates, accurately Page 106 jointed together; and the stem was made up of numerous distinct pieces or joints, flexibly united to each other by membrane. The Fig. 46
Fig. 46.—Group of Cystideans. A, Caryocrinus ornatus,[13] Upper Silurian, America; B, Pleurocystites squamosus, showing two short "arms," Lower Silurian, Canada; C, Pseudocrinus bifasciatus, Upper Silurian, England; D, Lepadocrinus Gebhartii, Upper Silurian, America. (After Hall, Billings, and Salter.)
chief distinction which strikes one in comparing the Cystideans with the Crinoids is, that the latter are always furnished, as will be subsequently seen, with a beautiful crown of branched and feathery appendages, springing from the summit of the calyx, and which are composed of innumerable calcareous plates or joints, and are known as the "arms." In the Cystideans, on the other hand, there are either no "arms" at all, or merely short, unbranched, rudimentary arms. The Cystideans are principally, and indeed nearly exclusively, Silurian fossils; and though occurring in the Upper Silurian in no small numbers, they are pre-eminently characteristic of the Llandeilo-Caradoc period of Lower Silurian time. They commenced their existence, so far as known, in the Upper Cambrian; and though examples are not absolutely unknown Page 107 in later periods, they are pre-eminently characteristic of the earlier portion of the Palæozoic epoch.

The Ringed Worms (Annelides) are abundantly represented in the Lower Silurian, but principally by tracks and burrows similar in essential respects to those which occur so commonly in the Cambrian formation, and calling for no special comment. Much more important are the Articulate animals, represented as heretofore, wholly by the remains of the aquatic group of the Fig. 47
Fig. 47.—Lower Silurian Crustaceans. a, Asaphus tyrannus, Upper Llandeilo; b. Ogygia Buchii, Upper Llandeilo; c, Trinucleus concentricus, Caradoc; d, Caryocaris Wrightii, Arenig (Skiddaw Slates); e, Beyrichia complicata, natural size and enlarged, Upper Llandeilo and Caradoc; f, Primitia strangulata, Caradoc: g. Head-shield of Calymene Blumenbachii, var. brevicapitata, Caradoc; h, Head-shield of Triarthrus Becki (Utica Slates), United States: i, Shield of Leperditia Canadensis, var. Josephiana, of the natural size, Trenton Limestone, Canada; j, The same, viewed from the front. (After Salter, M'Coy, Rupert Jones, and Dana.)
Crustaceans. Amongst these are numerous little bivalved forms—such as species of Primitia (fig. 47, f), Page 108 Beyrichia (fig. 47, e), and Leperditia (fig. 47, i and j). Most of these are very small, varying from the size of a pin's head up to that of a hemp seed; but they are sometimes as large as a small bean (fig. 47, i), and they are commonly found in myriads together in the rock. As before said, they belong to the same great group as the living Water-fleas (Ostracoda). Besides these, we find the pod-shaped head-shields of the shrimp-like Phyllopods—such as Caryocaris (fig. 47, d) and Ceratiocaris. More important, however, than any of these are the Trilobites, which may be considered as attaining their maximum development in the Lower Silurian. The huge Paradoxides of the Cambrian have now disappeared, and with them almost all the principal and characteristic "primordial" genera, save Olenus and Agnostus. In their place we have a great number of new forms—some of them, like the great Asaphus tyrannus of the Upper Llandeilo (fig. 47, a), attaining a length of a foot or more, and thus hardly yielding in the matter of size to their ancient rivals. Almost every subdivision of the Lower Silurian series has its own special and characteristic species of Trilobites; and the study of these is therefore of great importance to the geologist. A few widely-dispersed and characteristic species have been here figured (fig. 47); and the following may be considered as the principal Lower Silurian genera—Asaphus, Ogygia, Cheirurus, Ampyx, Caiymene, Trinucleus, Lichas, Illœnus, Æglina, Harpes, Remopleurides, Phacops, Acidaspis, and Homalonotus, a few of them passing upwards under new forms into the Upper Silurian.

Coming next to the Mollusca, we find the group of the Sea-mosses and Sea-mats (Polyzoa) represented now by quite a number of forms. Amongst these are examples of the true Lace-corals (Retepora and Fenestella), with their netted fan-like or funnel-shaped fronds; and along with these are numerous delicate encrusting forms, which grew parasitically attached to shells and corals (Hippothoa, Alecto, &c.); but perhaps the most characteristic forms belong to the genus Ptilodictya (figs. 48 and 49). In this group the frond is flattened, with thin striated edges, sometimes sword-like or scimitar-shaped, but often more or less branched; and it consists of two layers of cells, separated by a delicate membrane, and opening upon opposite sides. Each of these little chambers or "cells" was originally tenanted by a minute animal, and the whole thus constituted a compound organism or colony.

The Lamp-shells or Brachiopods are so numerous, and present such varied types, both in this and the succeeding period of the Upper Silurian, that the name of "Age of Brachiopods" Page 109 has with justice been applied to the Silurian period as a whole. It would be impossible here to enter into details as to the many Fig. 48
Fig. 48.—Ptilodictya falciformis. a, Small specimen of the natural size; b, Cross-section, showing the shape of the frond; c, Portion of the surface, enlarged. Trenton Limestone and Cincinnati Group, America. (Original.)
Fig. 49
Fig. 49.—A, Ptilodictya acuta; B. Ptilodictya Schafferi. a, Fragment, of the natural size; b, Portion, enlarged to show the cells. Cincinnati Group of Ohio and Canada. (Original.)
different forms of Brachiopods which present themselves in the Lower Silurian deposits; but we may select the three genera Orthis, Strophomena, and Leptœna for illustration, as being specially characteristic of this period, Fig. 50
Fig. 50.—Lower Silurian Brachiopods. a and a', Orthis biforata, Llandeilo-Caradoc, Britain and America: b, Orthis flabellulum, Caradoc, Britain: c, Orthis subquadrata, Cincinnati Group, America; c', Interior of the dorsal valve of the same: d, Strophomena deltoidea, Llandeilo-Caradoc, Britain and America. (After Meek, Hall, and Salter.)
though not exclusively confined to it. The numerous shells which belong to the extensive and cosmopolitan genus Orthis (fig. 50, a, b, c, Page 110 and fig. 51, c and d), are usually more or less transversely-oblong or subquadrate, the two valves (as more or less in all the Brachiopods) of unequal sizes, Fig. 51
Fig. 51.—Lower Silurian Brachiopods, a, Strophomena alternata, Cincinnati Group, America; b, Strophomena filitexta, Trenton and Cincinnati Groups, America; c, Orthis testudinaria, Caradoc, Europe, and America; d, d', Orthis plicateila, Cincinnati Group, America; e, e', e'', Leptœna sericea, Llandeilo and Caradoc, Europe and America. (After Meek, Hall, and the Author.)
generally more or less convex, and marked with radiating ribs or lines. The valves of the shell are united to one another by teeth and sockets, and there is a straight hinge-line. The beaks are also separated by a distinct space ("hinge-area"), formed in part by each valve, which is perforated by a triangular opening, through which, in the living condition, passed a muscular cord attaching the shell to some foreign object. The genus Strophomena (fig. 50, d, and 51, a and b) is very like Orthis in general character; but the shell is usually much flatter, one or other valve often being concave, the hinge-line is longer, and the aperture for the emission of the stalk of attachment is partially closed by a calcareous plate. In Leptœna, again (fig. 51, e), the shell is like Strophomena in many respects, but generally comparatively longer, often completely semicircular, and having one valve convex and the other valve concave. Amongst other genera of Brachiopods which are largely represented in the Lower Silurian rocks may be mentioned Lingula, Crania, Discina, Trematis, Siphonotreta, Acrotreta, Rhynchonella, and Athyris; but none of these can claim the importance to which the three previously-mentioned groups are entitled.

The remaining Lower Silurian groups of Mollusca can be but briefly glanced at here. The Bivalves (Lamellibranchiata) find numerous representatives, belonging to such genera as Page 111 Modiolopsis, Ctenodonta, Orthonota, Palœarca, Lyrodesma, Fig. 52
Fig. 52.—Murchisonia gracilis, Trenton Limestone, America. (After Billings.)
,and Cleidophorus. The Univalves (Gasteropoda) are also very numerous, the two most important genera being Murchisonia (fig. 52) and Pleurotomaria. In both these groups the outer lip of the shell is notched; but the shell in the former is elongated and turreted, whilst in the latter it is depressed. The curious oceanic Univalves known as the Heteropods are also very abundant, the principal forms belonging to Bellerophon and Maclurea. In the former (fig. 53) there is a symmetrical convoluted shell, like that of the Pearly Nautilus in shape, but without any internal partitions, and having the aperture often expanded and notched behind. The species of Maclurea (fig. 54) are found both in North America and in Scotland, and are exclusively confined to the Lower Silurian period, so far as known. They have the shell coiled into a flat spiral, the mouth being furnished with a very curious, thick, and solid lid or "operculum." The Lower Silurian Pteropods, or "Winged snails," are numerous, and belong principally to the genera Theca, Conularia, and Tentaculites, the last-mentioned of these often being extremely abundant in certain strata.

Lastly, the Lower Silurian Rocks have yielded a vast number of chambered shells, referable to animals which belong to the same great division as the Cuttle-fishes (the Cephalopoda), and of which the Pearly Nautilus is the only living representative at the present day. In this group of Cephalopods the animal Fig. 53
Fig. 53.—Different views of Bellerophon Argo, Trenton Limestone, Canada. (After Billings.)
possesses a well-developed external shell, which is divided into chambers by shelly partitions ("septa"). The animal lives in the last-formed and largest chamber of the shell, to which Page 112 it is organically connected by muscular attachments. The head is furnished with long muscular processes or "arms," and can be Fig. 54
Fig. 54.—Different views of Maclurea crenulata, Quebec Group, Newfoundland. (After Billings.)
protruded from the mouth of the shell at will, or again withdrawn within it. We learn, also, from the Pearly Nautilus, that these animals must have possessed two pairs of breathing organs or "gills;" hence all these forms are grouped together under the name of the "Tetrabranchiate" Cephalopods (Gr. tetra, four; bragchia, gill). On the other hand, the ordinary Cuttle-fishes and Calamaries either possess an internal skeleton, or if they have an external shell, it is not chambered; their "arms" are furnished with powerful organs of adhesion in the form of suckers; and they possess only a single pair of gills. For this last reason they are termed the "Dibranchiate" Cephalopods (Gr. dis, twice; bragchia, gill). No trace of the true Cuttle-fishes has yet been found in Lower Silurian deposits; but the Tetrabranchiate group is represented by a great number of forms, sometimes of great size. The principal Lower Silurian genus is the well-known and widely-distributed Orthoceras (fig. 55). The shell in this genus agrees with that of the existing Pearly Nautilus, in consisting of numerous chambers separated by shelly partitions (or septa), the latter being perforated by a tube which runs the whole length of the shell after the last chamber, and is known as the "siphuncle" (fig. 56, s). The last chamber formed is the largest, and in it the animal lives. The chambers behind this are apparently filled with some gas secreted by the animal itself; and these are supposed to act as a kind of float, enabling the creature to move with ease under the weight of its shell. The various air-chambers, though the siphuncle passes through them, have no direct connection with one another; and it is believed that the animal has the power of slightly altering its specific gravity, and thus of rising or sinking in the water by driving additional fluid into the siphuncle or partially emptying it. The Orthoceras Page 113 further agrees with the Pearly Nautilus in the fact that the partitions or septa separating the different air-chambers are Fig. 55
Fig. 55.—Fragment of Orthoceras crebriseptum, Cincinnati Group, North America, of the natural size. The lower figure section showing the air-chambers, and the form and position of the siphuncle. (After Billings.)
Fig. 56
Fig. 56.—[14] Restoration of Orthoceras, the shell being supposed to be divided vertically, and only its upper part being shown. a, Arms; f, Muscular tube ("funnel") by which water is expelled from the mantle-chamber; c, Air-chambers; s, Siphuncle.
simple and smooth, concave in front and convex behind, and devoid of the elaborate lobation which they exhibit in the Ammonites; whilst the siphuncle pierces the septa either in the centre or near it. In the Nautilus, however, the shell is coiled into a flat spiral; whereas in Orthoceras the shell is a straight, longer or shorter cone, tapering behind, and gradually expanding towards its mouth in front. The chief objections to the belief that the animal of the Orthoceras was essentially like that of the Pearly Nautilus are—the comparatively small size of the body-chamber, the often contracted aperture of the mouth, and the enormous size of some specimens of Page 114 the shell. Thus, some Orthocerata have been discovered measuring ten or twelve feet in length, with a diameter of a foot at the larger extremity. These colossal dimensions certainly make it difficult to imagine that the comparatively small body-chamber could have held an animal large enough to move a load so ponderous as its own shell. To some, this difficulty has appeared so great that they prefer to believe that the Orthoceras did not live in its shell at all, but that its shell was an internal skeleton similar to what we shall find to exist in many of the true Cuttle-fishes. There is something to be said in favour of this view, but it would compel us to believe in the existence in Lower Silurian times of Cuttle-fishes fully equal in size to the giant "Kraken" of fable. It need only be added in this connection that the Lower Silurian rocks have yielded the remains of many other Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods besides Orthoceras. Some of these belong to Cyrtoceras, which only differs from Orthoceras in the bow-shaped form of the shell; others belong to Phragmoceras, Lituites, &c.; and, lastly; we have true Nautili, with their spiral shells, closely resembling the existing Pearly Nautilus.

[Footnote 14: This illustration is taken from a rough sketch made by the author many years ago, but he is unable to say from what original source it was copied.]

Whilst all the sub-kingdoms of the Invertebrate animals are represented in the Lower Silurian rocks, no traces of Vertebrate animals have ever been discovered in these ancient deposits, unless the so-called "Conodonts" found by Pander in vast numbers in strata of this age [15] in Russia should prove to be really of this nature. These problematical bodies are of microscopic size, and have the form of minute, conical, tooth-shaped spines, with sharp edges, and hollow at the base. Their original discoverer regarded them as the horny teeth of fishes allied to the Lampreys; but Owen came to the conclusion that they probably belonged to Invertebrates. The recent investigation of a vast number of similar but slightly larger bodies, of very various forms, in the Carboniferous rocks of Ohio, has led Professor Newberry to the conclusion that these singular fossils really are, as Pander thought, the teeth of Cyclostomatous fishes. The whole of this difficult question has thus been reopened, and we may yet have to record the first advent of Vertebrate animals in the Lower Silurian.

[Footnote 15: According to Pander, the "Conodonts" are found not only in the Lower Silurian beds, but also in the "Ungulite Grit" (Upper Cambrian), as well as in the Devonian and Carboniferous deposits of Russia. Should the Conodonts prove to be truly the remains of fishes, we should thus have to transfer the first appearance of vertebrates to, at any rate, as early a period as the Upper Cambrian.]

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