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Chapter 21:


Later than any of the Tertiary formations are various detached and more or less superficial accumulations, which are generally spoken of as the Post-Tertiary formations, in accordance with the nomenclature of Sir Charles Lyell—or as the Quaternary formations, in accordance with the general usage of Continental geologists. In all these formations we meet with no Mollusca except such as are now alive—with the partial and very limited exception of some of the oldest deposits of this period, in which a few of the shells occasionally belong to species not known to be in existence at the present day. Whilst the Shell-fish of the Quaternary deposits are, generally speaking, identical with existing forms, the Mammals are sometimes referable to living, sometimes to extinct species. In accordance with this, the Quaternary formations are divided into two groups: (1) The Post-Pliocene, in which the shells are almost invariably referable to existing species, but some of the Mammals are extinct; and (2) the Recent, in which the shells and the Mammals alike belong to existing species. The Post-Pliocene deposits are often spoken of as the Pleistocene formations (Gr. pleistos, most; kainos, new or recent), in allusion to the fact that the great majority of the living beings of this period belong to the species characteristic of the "new" or Recent period.

The Recent deposits, though of the highest possible interest, do not properly concern the palæontologist strictly so-called, but the zoologist, since they contain the remains of none but existing animals. They are "Pre-historic," but they belong entirely to the existing terrestrial order. The Post-Pliocene deposits, on the other hand, contain the remains of various extinct Mammals; and though Man undoubtedly existed in, at any rate, the later portion of this period, if not throughout the whole of it, they properly form part of the domain of the palæontologist.

The Post-Pliocene deposits are extremely varied, and very widely distributed; and owing to the mode of their occurrence, the ordinary geological tests of age are in their case but very partially available. The subject of the classification of these deposits Page 335 is therefore an extremely complicated one; and as regards the age of even some of the most important of them, there still exists considerable difference of opinion. For our present purpose, it will be convenient to adopt a classification of the Post-Pliocene deposits founded on the relations which they bear in time to the great "Ice-age" or "Glacial period;" though it is not pretended that our present knowledge is sufficient to render such a classification more than a provisional one.

In the early Tertiary period, as we have seen, the climate of the northern hemisphere, as shown by the Eocene animals and plants, was very much hotter than it is at present—partaking, indeed, of a sub-tropical character. In the Middle Tertiary or Miocene period, the temperature, though not so high, was still much warmer than that now enjoyed by the northern hemisphere; and we know that the plants of temperate regions at this time flourished within the Arctic circle. In the later Tertiary or Pliocene period, again, there is evidence that the northern hemisphere underwent a further progressive diminution of temperature; though the climate of Europe generally seems at the close of the Tertiary period to have been if anything warmer, or at any rate not colder, than it is at the present day. With the commencement of the Quaternary period, however, this diminution of temperature became more decided; and beginning with a temperate climate, we find the greater portion of the northern hemisphere to become gradually subjected to all the rigours of intense Arctic cold. All the mountainous regions of Northern and Central Europe, of Britain, and of North America, became the nurseries of huge ice-streams, and large areas of the land appear to have been covered with a continuous ice-sheet. The Arctic conditions of this, the well-known "Glacial period," relaxed more than once, and were more than once re-established with lesser intensity. Finally, a gradual but steadily progressive amelioration of temperature took place; the ice slowly gave way, and ultimately disappeared altogether; and the climate once more became temperate, except in high northern latitudes.

The changes of temperature sketched out above took place slowly and gradually, and occupied the whole of the Post-Pliocene period. In each of the three periods marked out by these changes—in the early temperate, the central cold, and the later temperate period—certain deposits were laid down over the surface of the northern hemisphere; and these deposits collectively constitute the Post-Pliocene formations. Hence we may conveniently classify all the accumulations of Page 336 this age under the heads of (1) Pre-Glacial deposits, (2) Glacial deposits, and (3) Post-Glacial deposits, according as they were formed before, during, or after the "Glacial period." It cannot by any means be asserted that we can definitely fix the precise relations in time of all the Post-Pliocene deposits to the Glacial period. On the contrary, there are some which hold a very disputed position as regards this point; and there are others which do not admit of definite allocation in this manner at all, in consequence of their occurrence in regions where no "Glacial Period" is known to have been established. For our present purpose, however, dealing as we shall have to do principally with the northern hemisphere, the above classification, with all its defects, has greater advantages than any other that has been yet proposed.

I. PRE-GLACIAL DEPOSITS.—The chief pre-glacial deposit of Britain is found on the Norfolk coast, reposing upon the Newer Pliocene (Norwich Crag), and consists of an ancient land-surface which is known as the "Cromer Forest-bed."

This consists of an ancient soil, having embedded in it the stumps of many trees, still in an erect position, with remains of living plants, and the bones of recent and extinct quadrupeds. It is overlaid by fresh-water and marine beds, all the shells of which belong to existing species, and it is finally surmounted by true "glacial drift." While all the shells and plants of the Cromer Forest-bed and its associated strata belong to existing species, the Mammals are partly living, partly extinct. Thus we find the existing Wolf (Canis lupus), Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Roebuck (Cervus capreolus), Mole (Talpa Europtœa), and Beaver (Castor fiber), living in western England side by side with the Hippopotamus major, Elephas antiquus, Elephas meridionalis, Rhinoceros Etruscus, and R. Megarhinus of the Pliocene period, which are not only extinct, but imply an at any rate moderately warm climate. Besides the above, the Forest-bed has yielded the remains of several extinct species of Deer, of the great extinct Beaver (Trogontherium Cuvieri), of the Caledonian Bull or "Urus" (Bos primigenius), and of a Horse (Equus fossilis), little if at all distinguishable from the existing form.

The so-called "Bridlington Crag" of Yorkshire, and the "Chillesford Beds" of Suffolk, are probably to be regarded as also belonging to this period; though many of the shells which they contain are of an Arctic character, and would indicate that they were deposited in the commencement of the Glacial period itself. Owing, however, to the fact that a few of the shells of these deposits are not known to occur in a living Page 337 condition, these, and some other similar accumulations, are sometimes considered as referable to the Pliocene period.

II. GLACIAL DEPOSITS.—Under this head is included a great series of deposits which are widely spread over both Europe and America, and which were formed at a time when the climate of these countries was very much colder than it is at present, and approached more or less closely to what we see at the present day in the Arctic regions. These deposits are known by the general name of the Glacial deposits, or by the more specialised names of the Drift, the Northern Drift, the Boulder-clay, the Till, &c.

These glacial deposits are found in Britain as far south as the Thames, over the whole of Northern Europe, in all the more elevated portions of Southern and Central Europe, and over the whole of North America, as far south as the 39th parallel. They generally occur as sands, clays, and gravels, spread in widely-extended sheets over all the geological formations alike, except the most recent, and are commonly spoken of under the general term of "Glacial drift." They vary much in their exact nature in different districts, but they universally consist of one, or all, of the following members:—

1. Unstratified clays, or loams, containing numerous angular or sub-angular blocks of stone, which have often been transported for a greater or less distance from their parent rock, and which often exhibit polished, grooved, or striated surfaces. These beds are what is called Boulder-clay, or Till.

2. Sands, gravels, and clays, often more or less regularly stratified, but containing erratic blocks, often of large size, and with their edges unworn, derived from considerable distances from the place where they are now found. In these beds it is not at all uncommon to find fossil shells; and these, though of existing species, are generally of an Arctic character, comprising a greater or less number of forms which are now exclusively found in the icy waters of the Arctic seas. These beds are often spoken of as "Stratified Drift."

3. Stratified sands and gravels, in which the pebbles are worn and rounded, and which have been produced by a rearrangement of ordinary glacial beds by the sea. These beds are commonly known as "Drift-gravels," or "Regenerated Drift".

Some of the last-mentioned of these are doubtless post-glacial; but, in the absence of fossils, it is often impossible to arrive at a positive opinion as to the precise age of superficial accumulations of this nature. It is also the opinion of high authorities that a considerable number of the so-called "cave-deposits," Page 338 with the bones of extinct Mammals, truly belong to the Glacial period, being formed during warm intervals when the severity of the Arctic cold had become relaxed. It is further believed that some, at any rate, of the so-called "high-level" river-gravels and "brick-earths" have likewise been deposited during mild or warm intervals in the great age of ice; and in two or three instances this has apparently been demonstrated—deposits of this nature, with the bones of extinct animals and the implements of man, having been shown to be overlaid by true Boulder-clay.

The fossils of the undoubted Glacial deposits are principally shells, which are found in great numbers in certain localities, sometimes with Foraminifera, the bivalved cases of Ostracode Crustaceans, &c. Whilst some of the shells of the "Drift" are such as now live in the seas of temperate regions, others, as previously remarked, are such as are now only known to live in the seas of high latitudes; and these therefore afford unquestionable evidence of cold conditions. Amongst these Arctic forms of shells which characterise the Glacial beds may be mentioned Pecten Islandicus (fig. 254), Pecten Grœnlandicus, Scalaria Grœnlandica, Leda truncata, Astarte borealis, Tellina proxima, Nattra clausa, &c.

Fig. 254
Fig. 254.—Left valve of Pecten Islandicus, Glacial and Recent.

III. POST-GLACIAL DEPOSITS.—As the intense cold of the Glacial period became gradually mitigated, and temperate Page 339 conditions of climate were once more re-established, various deposits were formed in the northern hemisphere, which are found to contain the remains of extinct Mammals, and which, therefore, are clearly of Post-Pliocene age. To these deposits the general name of Post-Glacial formations is given; but it is obvious that, from the nature of the case, and with our present limited knowledge, we cannot draw a rigid line of demarcation between the deposits formed towards the close of the Glacial period, or during warm "interglacial" periods, and those laid down after the ice had fairly disappeared. Indeed it is extremely improbable that any such rigid line of demarcation should ever have existed; and it is far more likely that the Glacial and Post-Glacial periods, and their corresponding deposits, shade into one another by an imperceptible gradation. Accepting this reservation, we may group together, under the general head of "Post-Glacial Deposits," most of the so-called "Valley-gravels," "Brick-earths," and "Cave-deposits," together with some "raised beaches" and various deposits of peat. Though not strictly within the compass of this work, a few words may be said here as to the origin and mode of formation of the Brick-earths, Valley-gravels, and Cave-deposits, as the subject will thus be rendered more clearly intelligible.

Every river produces at the present day beds of fine mud and loam, and accumulations of gravel, which it deposits at various parts of its course—the gravel generally occupying the lowest position, and the finer sands and mud coming above. Numerous deposits of a similar nature are found in most countries in various localities, and at various heights above the present channels of our rivers. Many of these fluviatile (Lat. fluvius, a river) deposits consist of fine loam, worked for brick-making, and known as "Brick-earths;" and they have yielded the remains of numerous extinct Mammals, of which the Mammoth (Elephas primigenius) is the most abundant. In the valley of the Rhine these fluviatile loams (known as "Loess") attain a thickness of several hundred feet, and contain land and fresh-water shells of existing species. With these occur the remains of Mammals, such as the Mammoth and Woolly Rhinoceros. Many of these Brick-earths are undoubtedly Post-Glacial, but others seem to be clearly "inter-glacial;" and instances have recently been brought forward in which deposits of Brick-earth containing bones and shells of fresh-water Molluscs have been found to be overlaid by regular unstratified boulder-clay.

Fig. 255
Fig. 255.—Recent and Post-Pliocene Alluvial Deposits. 1, Peat of the recent period; 2, Gravel of the modern river: 2', Loam of the modern river; 3. Lower-level valley-gravel with bones of extinct Mammals (Post-Pliocene); 3', Loam of the same age as 3; 4. Higher-level valley-gravel (Post-Pliocene); 4', Loam of the same age as 4; 5. Upland gravels of various kinds (often glacial drift); 6, Older rock. (After Sir Charles Lyell.)

The so-called "Valley-gravels," like the Brick-earths, are Page 340 fluviatile deposits, but are of a coarser nature, consisting of sands and gravels. Every river gives origin to deposits of this kind at different points along the course of its valley; and it is not uncommon to find that there exist in the valley of a single river two or more sets of these gravel-beds, formed by the river itself, but formed at times when the river ran at different levels, and therefore formed at different periods. These different accumulations are known as the "high-level" and "low-level" gravels; and a reference to the accompanying diagram will explain the origin and nature of these deposits (fig. 255). When a river begins to occupy a particular line of drainage, and to form its own channel, it will deposit fluviatile sands and gravels along its sides. As it goes on deepening the bed or valley through which it flows, it will deposit other fluviatile strata at a lower level beside its new bed. In this way have arisen the terms "high-level" and "low-level" gravels. We find, for instance, a modern river flowing through a valley which it has to a great extent or entirely formed itself; by the side of its immediate channel we may find gravels, sand, and loam (fig. 255, 2 2') deposited by the river flowing in its present bed. These are recent fluviatile or alluvial deposits. At some distance from the present bed of the river, and at a higher level, we may find other sands and gravels, quite like the recent ones in character and origin, but formed at a time when the stream flowed at a higher level, and before it had excavated its valley to its present depth. These (fig. 255, 3 3') are the so-called "low-level gravels" of a river. At a still higher level, and still farther removed from the present bed of the river, we may find another terrace, composed of just the same materials as the lower one, but formed at a still earlier period, when the Page 341 excavation of the valley had proceeded to a much less extent. These (fig. 255, 4 4') are the so-called "high-level gravels" of a river, and there may be one or more terraces of these.

The important fact to remember about these fluviatile deposits is this—that here the ordinary geological rule is reversed. The high-level gravels are, of course, the highest, so far as their actual elevation above the sea is concerned; but geologically the lowest, since they are obviously much older than the low-level gravels, as these are than the recent gravels. How much older the high-level gravels may be than the low-level ones, it is impossible to say. They occur at heights varying from 10 to 100 feet above the present river-channels, and they are therefore older than the recent gravels by the time required by the river to dig out its own bed to this depth. How long this period may be, our data do not enable us to determine accurately; but if we are to calculate from the observed rate of erosion of the actually existing rivers, the period between the different valley-gravels must be a very long one.

The lowest or recent fluviatile deposits which occur beside the bed of the present river, are referable to the Recent period, as they contain the remains of none but living Mammals. The two other sets of gravels are Post-Pliocene, as they contain the bones of extinct Mammals, mixed with land and fresh-water shells of existing species. Among the more important extinct Mammals of the low-level and high-level valley-gravels may be mentioned the Elephas antiquus, the Mammoth (Elephas primigenius), the Woolly Rhinoceros (R. Tichorhinus), the Hippopotamus, the Cave-lion, and the Cave-bear. Along with these are found unquestionable traces of the existence of Man, in the form of rude flint implements of undoubted human workmanship.

The so-called "Cave-deposits," again, though exhibiting peculiarities due to the fact of their occurrence in caverns or fissures in the rocks, are in many respects essentially similar to the older valley-gravels. Caves, in the great majority of instances, occur in limestone. When this is not the case, it will generally be found that they occur along lines of sea-coast, or along lines which can be shown to have anciently formed the coast-line. There are many caves, however, in the making of which it can be shown that the sea has had no hand; and these are most of the caves of limestone districts. These owe their origin to the solvent action upon lime of water holding carbonic acid in solution. The rain which falls upon a limestone district absorbs a certain amount of carbonic acid from Page 342 the air, or from the soil. It then percolates through the rock, generally along the lines of jointing so characteristic of limestones, and in its progress it dissolves and carries off a certain quantity of carbonate of lime. In this way, the natural joints and fissures in the rock are widened, as can be seen at the present day in any or all limestone districts. By a continuance of this action for a sufficient length of time, caves may ultimately be produced. Nothing, also, is commoner in a limestone district than for the natural drainage to take the line of some fissure, dissolving the rock in its course. In this way we constantly meet in limestone districts with springs issuing from the limestone rock—sometimes as large rivers—the waters of which are charged with carbonate of lime, obtained by the solution of the sides of the fissure through which the waters have flowed. By these and similar actions, every district in which limestones are extensively developed will be found to exhibit a number of natural caves, rents, or fissures. The first element, therefore, in the production of cave-deposits, is the existence of a period in which limestone rocks were largely dissolved, and caves were formed in consequence of the then existing drainage taking the line of some fissure.

Secondly, there must have been a period in which various deposits were accumulated in the caves thus formed. These cavern-deposits are of very various nature, consisting of mud, loam, gravel, or breccias of different kinds. In all cases, these materials have been introduced into the cave at some period subsequent to, or contemporaneous with, the formation of the cave. Sometimes the cave communicates with the surface by a fissure through which sand, gravel, &c., may be washed by rains or by floods from some neighbouring river. Sometimes the cave has been the bed of an ancient stream, and the deposits have been formed as are fluviatile deposits at the surface. Or, again, the river has formerly flowed at a greater elevation than it does at present, and the cave has been filled with fluviatile deposits by the river at a time prior to the excavation of its bed to the present depth (fig. 256). In this last case, the cave-deposits obviously bear exactly the same relation in point of antiquity to recent deposits, as do the low-level and high-level valley-gravels to recent river-gravels. In any case, it is necessary for the physical geography of the district to change to some extent, in order that the cave-deposits should be preserved. If the materials have been introduced by a fissure, the cave will probably become ultimately filled to the roof, and the aperture of admission thus blocked up. If a river has flowed through the cave, the surface configuration Page 343 of the district must be altered so far as to divert the river into a new channel. And if the cave is placed in the side of a river-valley, as in fig. 256, the river must have excavated its channel to such a depth that it can no longer wash out the contents of the cave even in high floods.

Fig. 256
Fig. 256.—Diagrammatic section across a river-valley and cave. a a, Recent valley-gravels near the channel (b) of the existing river; c, Cavern, partly filled with cave-earth; d d, High-level gravels, filling fissures in the limestone, which perhaps communicate in some instances with the cave, and form a channel by which materials of various kinds were introduced into it; e e, Inclined beds of limestone.

If the cave be entirely filled, the included deposits generally get more or less completely cemented together by the percolation through them of water holding carbonate of lime in solution. If the cave is only partially filled, the dropping of water from the roof holding lime in solution, and its subsequent evaporation, would lead to the formation over the deposits below of a layer of stalagmite, perhaps several inches, or even feet, in thickness. In this way cave-deposits, with their contained remains, may be hermetically sealed up and preserved without injury for an altogether indefinite period of time.

In all caves in limestone in which deposits containing bones are found, we have then evidence of three principal sets of changes. (1.) A period during which the cave was slowly hollowed out by the percolation of acidulated water; (2.) A period in which the cave became the channel of an engulfed river, or otherwise came to form part of the general drainage-system of the district; (3.) A period in which the cave was inhabited by various animals.

As a typical example of a cave with fossiliferous Post-Pliocene deposits, we may take Kent's Cavern, near Torquay, in which a systematic and careful examination has revealed the following sequence of accumulations in descending order:—

(a) Large blocks of limestone, which lie on the floor of the cave, having fallen from the roof, and which are sometimes cemented together by stalagmite.

(b) A layer of black mould, from three to twelve inches thick, with human bones, fragments of pottery, stone and Page 344 bronze implements, and the bones of animals now living in Britain. This, therefore, is a recent deposit.

(c) A layer of stalagmite, from sixteen to twenty inches thick, but sometimes as much as five feet, containing the bones of Man, together with those of extinct Post-Pliocene Mammals.

(d) A bed of red cave-earth, sometimes four feet in thickness, with numerous bones of extinct Mammals (Mammoth, Cave-bear, &c.), together with human implements of flint and horn.

(e) A second bed of stalagmite, in places twelve feet in thickness, with bones of the Cave-bear.

(f) A red-loam and cave-breccia, with remains of the Cave-bear and human implements.

The most important Mammals which are found in cave-deposits in Europe generally, are the Cave-bear, the Cave-lion, the Cave-hyæna, the Reindeer, the Musk-ox, the Glutton, and the Lemming—of which the first three are probably identical with existing forms, and the remainder are certainly so—together with the Mammoth and the Woolly Rhinoceros, which are undoubtedly extinct. Along with these are found the implements, and in some cases the bones, of Man himself, in such a manner as to render it absolutely certain that an early race of men was truly contemporaneous in Western Europe with the animals above mentioned.

IV. UNCLASSIFIED POST-PLIOCENE DEPOSITS.—Apart from any of the afore mentioned deposits, there occur other accumulations—sometimes superficial, sometimes in caves—which are found in regions where a "Glacial period" has not been fully demonstrated, or where such did not take place; and which, therefore, are not amenable to the above classification. The most important of these are known to occur in South America and Australia; and though their numerous extinct Mammalia place their reference to the Post-Pliocene period beyond doubt, their relations to the glacial period and its deposits in the northern hemisphere have not been precisely determined.

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